By Marilyn J. Landis, Roger Garaudy
The risk and pleasure of Antarctic exploration are unrivaled within the annals of event trip. Antarctica: Exploring the extraordinary surveys 4 centuries and forty expeditions to Antarctica, recounting, usually within the explorers' personal phrases, the wonders and the catastrophes they encountered. impressive attractions, hair-raising escapes, and macabre deaths from storms and scurvy attended Ferdinand Magellan's 1520 passage during the southern straits and Captain John Biscoe's 1830 Antarctic circumnavigation. Nineteenth-century sealing and whaling expeditions from around the globe are chronicled, and Ernest Shackleton's, Roald Amundsen's, and Robert Scott's anguishing trials of physique and spirit of their separate struggles to arrive the South Pole early within the twentieth century are unique. a last part describes Antarctica at the present time, detailing the natural world and geology of a quarter that's drawing a growing number of viewers who, just like the adventurers sooner than them, are fascinated about the isolation, attractiveness, and problem of the continent.
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Extra resources for Antarctica: Exploring the Extreme: 400 Years of Adventure
A trusted member warned Magellan when the attack was imminent. Under the cover of darkness, Magellan surprised the mutineers and bound forty-ﬁve men in irons. Punishment for the three Spanish captains responsible for the mutiny was grim. One was drawn and quartered; another was beheaded. The third man was then abandoned alive on shore with nothing but the rotting bodies of the other two. 8 ANTARCTICA Magellan wintered near Rio de Santa Cruz and headed south in the late austral spring. On October 21, 1520, the ships approached the massive headlands Magellan later named Cape of Eleven Thousand Virgins, in honor of St.
Ofﬁcers tracked shoals of porpoising chinstrap penguins with their telescopes until the black and white ﬂashes were lost among the icebergs. Bouvet’s Cape Circumcision continued to elude Cook. However, penguin watching relieved the tedious hours for the men on duty. “Pass’d an ice island which had 86 Penguins upon it—I counted them,” boasted midshipman Mitchell. Pickersgill became a dedicated student of penguin behavior. “We ﬁred two 4 pounders at them but Missed . . they wheel’d off three deep and March’d down to the water in a Rant; they seemed to perform .
In the fall of 1820, bold statements appeared in a number of newspapers and journals claiming that Americans had not only known about the Shetland Islands but had hunted seals there for years. However, no logbooks ever surfaced to justify such claims, and no seal carnage blighted any beaches at the time of Smith’s initial discovery. The South Shetland Islands and Antarctic Peninsula were pristine—but not for long. Claims, Counterclaims, and Controversies At the same time that Bransﬁeld and Smith were exploring the South Shetland Islands, at least one American vessel explored hidden coves for shelter.