An Introduction to Gastro-Enterology. The Mechanics of the by Walter C. Alvarez

By Walter C. Alvarez

The Mechanics of the Digestive Tract, Fourth variation: An advent to Gastro-Enterology presents info pertinent to the mechanics of the digestive tract. This ebook studies many of the causes for the downward development of intestinal waves.

Organized into 34 chapters, this variation starts off with an outline of the most different types of task within the small bowel. this article then explains the character of the polarity and the site of the mechanism that produces it. different chapters ponder the duodenal tonus contraction during which the wave turns out to originate ordinarily seems a couple of seconds ahead of a gastric wave reaches the pylorus. This e-book discusses besides the polarity of the bowel that prompted each contraction ring to unfold caudad as quickly it shaped. the ultimate bankruptcy presents an inventory of books which are more likely to be worthy to readers who're beginning on their lifework within the fields of gastro-enterology and gastro-intestinal physiology.

This e-book is a important source for college students, lecturers, physicians, and examine employees.

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Extra info for An Introduction to Gastro-Enterology. The Mechanics of the Digestive Tract

Example text

This suggests that the reflex im­ pulses do not even have to pass through the ganglion cells, much less originate in them. Similarly, if one removes the central ganglion from an ascidian, its complicated reflexes are still carried out. The only difference is that they need a stronger stimulus and are executed more slowly because conduction is then effected through the nerve net (Loeb, 1 900, p. 3 5 : Jordan, 1 908 ) . Even more remarkable is the fact that a beheaded shark can swim as if there were little the matter with him, and for weeks after its fore-brain has been removed a frog can catch flies, and swallow and digest them.

EFFECT OF SLEEP Helm, Kramer, MacDonald and lngelfinger ( 1 947- 1 948 ) sum­ marized the small literature on the effect of sleep on the bowel and stated that Cannon ( 1 90 1 - 1 9 02 ) , Barcroft and Robinson ( 1 929 ) , and Douglas and Mann ( 1 93 9 ) , hadn't noticed much difference between the activity by day and by night. They, however, found a decided drop in the activity of the small bowel in 1 2 of 1 6 human subjects when the person fell asleep. They had a recording balloon in the bowel.

While studying a man with an umbilical fistul1;1, Hines and Mead ( 1 926 ) saw waves traveling at the rate of 3 cm. a second. They also saw reverse waves. No difference could be seen when the patient slept. The bowel usually became more active during the periods when there were hunger contractions in the stomach. Tuomikoski ( 1 9 3 2 ) made interesting studies of digestion and absorption in a girl who was left, after gangrene destroyed a segment of bowel, with a double-barreled fistula 200 cm. below the ligament of Treitz and 40 cm.

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