Affluence and Poverty in the Middle East by M. Riad El-Ghonemy

By M. Riad El-Ghonemy

Affluence and Poverty within the center East is an creation to the political financial system of the center East, targeting its such a lot salient beneficial properties - chronic poverty and severe inequality. El-Ghonemy analyses the standards influencing the area, together with its targeted ancient, spiritual and cultural combine, in addition to its financial foundations and types of corruption. for every issue he employs case-studies drawn from in the course of the zone, from Turkey to Sudan and Morocco to Iran. within the ultimate part El-Ghomeny discusses attainable recommendations to the demanding situations dealing with the sector, together with attainable makes use of of a peace dividend, and the position of democracy.

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In practical terms, the results depend on which assumptions are used and which are most applicable to the situation studied. Whereas the production-function and the general equilibrium systems of analysis have been developed since the work of the classical economists, notably Ricardo, they are more concerned with efficiency in resource allocation (relative to income earned from owned factors of production) than with personal distribution of income or consumption,3 related to the integrated structure of the following areas of concern to us here: 12 BA S IC CO N C EPTS A N D R EA LI TIE S 1.

7 million in 1990. Since then the number of undernourished children must have been swollen, both by the increasing misery in southern Sudan owing to the civil war and by the Iraqi catastrophe following the 1991 Gulf War. 1 million (Chapter 6). 15 These diseases are found to be positively correlated with affluence, that is, the higher the personal income, the higher is the incidence of diabetes and obesity (Chapter 8). 2. 8). 0). a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. 9 10 6 6 9 9 20 30 48 3 Undernutrition in children under 5 as % of total age group, c.

1). The marked increase in income inequality over a short time is illustrated by the changes in average annual income per person in Egypt relative to that in Saudi Arabia between 1940 and 1991: Egypt’s was double that of Saudi Arabia in 1940, plunging down to only 5 per cent of the Saudis’ in 1980 and 7 per cent in 1991 (Chapter 4). Yet, sudden affluence in oil-rich Arab states alone does not bring about rapid human development achievements. Of the total nineteen countries for which comparable data are available, the richest four (the UAE, Kuwait, Israel and Saudi Arabia) are not always the top four in reducing illiteracy and the mortality rate of children under 5, with Saudi Arabia being the worst performer among the richest group and its achievements ranked below such middle-income countries as Turkey, Jordan and Tunisia (Chapter 6).

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