By Phyllis R. Brown, Eli Grushka
An up to date reference, offering an cutting edge viewpoint on breakthroughs in separation technological know-how, resembling reverse-phase HPLC, advances in hyphenation, and linear dependence of relative retention values at the nature of the service fuel and normal column strain in gas-liquid chromatography.
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Additional info for Advances in Chromatography: Volume 41
5): ED-OTLC: f (k) ED m ϭ k2 16(1 ϩ k)2 PD-OTLC: f (k) PD m ϭ 1 ϩ 6k ϩ 11k 2 96 (1 ϩ k) 2 (9) (10) Bruin et al:  highlight that in ED-OTLC, capillaries with wider inner diameter (up to 25 µm) can be used than in PD-OTLC without loss of efficiency, having advantages of detection, loadability, and column preparation. Figure 7 shows the influence of the column diameter and the type of mobile-phase propulsion on the plate Fundamentals of Capillary Electrochromatography / 15 Fig. 7 Theoretical plate-height curves for a pressure-driven (PD) system (dashed lines) and for an electroosmotic-driven (ED) system (solid lines) for different inner diameters of the open-tubular capillaries (k ϭ 1, Dm ϭ 10Ϫ9 m 2 /s).
Employing Eq. 4 µm. 5 to 50 µm. In their studies, the electroosmotic velocity was virtually independent of the particle diameter. 5-µm diameter) synthesized by means of a modified Sto¨ber process, Lu¨dtke et al.  proved the applicability of packings with such fine material in CEC. The electroosmotic mobility observed with these packings is not significantly reduced compared to packings with material of larger mean particle diameter. Regarding the plate-height equation for a packed column (pressure-driven mobile phase) [23–25], H ϭ 2λp dp ϩ 2γ DM (1 ϩ 6k ϩ 11k 2 )d 2p 8kd 2F ϩ v v ϩ v 24(1 ϩ k) 2 Dm π 2 (1 ϩ k) 2 Ds (4) where H ϭ height of a theoretical plate, λp ϭ packing factor, dp ϭ mean particle diameter, γ ϭ labyrinth factor, v ϭ linear velocity of mobile phase, DM ϭ diffusion coefficient in the mobile phase, k ϭ retention factor of solute, dF ϭ effective film thickness of the stationary phase, and DS ϭ diffusion coefficient in the stationary phase, the tremendous impact of the mean particle diameter on the chromatographic efficiency obtainable with a given column is obvious.
Electroosmosis is an electrokinetic effect originating from the electrophoretic movement of the diffuse layer of the electric double layer that is formed at the interface between the liquid and the solid. In CE, electroosmosis is generated only at the electric double layer formed Fig. 2 Difference between (a) in-column and (b) on-column detection in a packed capillary. 6 / Pyell at the inner capillary wall. In CEC with packed or gel-filled capillaries, however, the inner surface generated by the porous plug inside the capillary is much larger than the inner surface of the capillary wall (see Fig.