A Theory of Parties and Electoral Systems by Richard S. Katz

By Richard S. Katz

Political events and elections are the mainsprings of contemporary democracy. during this vintage quantity, Richard S. Katz explores the matter of ways a given electoral method impacts the function of political events and how within which celebration contributors are elected. He develops and exams a thought of the diversities within the unity, ideological habit, and factor orientation of Western parliamentary events at the foundation of the electoral structures less than which they compete. a typical within the box of political idea and proposal, The conception of events and the Electoral System contributes to a greater realizing of parliamentary occasion constructions and demonstrates the large application of the rationalistic process for explaining habit derived from the self-interest of political actors.

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Under these circumstances, the personal visibility of each candidate is reduced and party becomes a more salient feature of electoral choice, Further, local appeals are less likely to be effective since each candidate can be the "local man" to a far smaller proportion of the voters. 24 Likewise, in small districts^ patronage and the provision of particularistic services may be important campaign techniques. 25 Electoral Law 31 The mechanics as well as the strategy of campaigning are affected by district size.

In the case of small districts, this will be manifested in personalistic fractionalization. In the case of large districts, the pattern of party factionalism or fractionalization will reflect the distribution of electorally rnobilizable resources. It is to the empirical verification of these predictions that attention now must turn. 3 An Extensive Test ONCE a theory has been developed deductively, it must be tested empirically. In doing this, one may pursue either, or both, of two complementary strategies.

Finally, because the object of voting in plurality systems is the individual and because each candidate must be declared either elected or defeated, plurality schemes must be concerned with the order in which candidates finish rather than with the absolute numbers or percentages of votes received, There is, after all, no way to be proportional among individuals, each of whom must be either completely elected or else completely defeated. Rather than the statistical fairness of the outcome, these concerns with order (as the very word plurality implies) and with individuality are what most clearly distinguish plurality from proportional electoral formulae.

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