By Sandra A. Thompson
Wappo is an indigenous language, often considered as a language isolate, which used to be spoken within the Russian River Valley, simply north of San Francisco, California. This reference grammar relies at the speech of Laura Fish Somersal, its final fluent speaker, who died in 1990, and represents the main vast facts and grammatical learn ever performed in this language. The grammar specializes in morphosyntax, quite nominal, verbal, and clausal buildings and clause combining styles, from a functional/typological viewpoint.
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Extra info for A Reference Grammar of Wappo (University of California Publications in Linguistics)
The following example shows that when the head noun is human, both the noun and the adjective are marked for plurality: (70) a. met'e - te k'ena - te woman - PL tall - PL ‘tall women’ (lts89) b. *met'e k'ena - te woman tall - PL c. *met'e - te k'ena woman - PL tall The following examples show that when the head noun is not human, only the adjective takes the plural suffix: 22 The Noun Phrase (71) a. hol k'ena - te tree tall - PL ‘tall trees’ b. *hol - te k'ena - (te) tree - PL tall - (PL) Example (5) also illustrates this point; chica ‘bear’ appears in its singular form, but koṭo:mela ‘big’ is given in its plural form.
For further discussion of 3CO, including cross-linguistic comparisons, see Li and Thompson (1993). 9 Pronouns (93) cephi may' - piyaʔ holowik'a naw - taʔ 3SG:NOM REFL - near snake see - PST ‘s/he saw a snake near him/herself’ (53) Here are further examples of 3CO with non-body-part genitives: (94) nom - khiʔ khon' polaʔ - i me - meʔ on - k'a live - STAT EVID boy - NOM 3CO - GEN people - COM ‘there lived, they say, a boyi with hisi people’ (Text E, 295) (95) ce k'ew - i me - meʔ kapote č'a - welis - taʔ DEM man - NOM 3CO - GEN coat ‘the mani took off hisi coat’ (78) (96) cel' neteʔ - met'a - i me DIR - take:off - PST ek'a:pi - thu then mole - woman - NOM 3CO daughter - DAT cew - is - taʔ ...
Sumi cic'a - t - i ho - yok'el - khiʔ yesterday bird - PL - NOM DIR - fly - STAT ‘yesterday the birds were flying around [but have now roosted]’ (13, 369) (36) a. cephi ew mehlah - šiʔ 3SG:NOM fish catch - DUR ‘s/he’s fishing’ (370) b. cephi ew mehlahi - khiʔ 3SG:NOM fish catch - STAT ‘s/he’s gone fishing’ (370) (37) a. thal - i te - cew - šeʔ what - NOM DIR - fall - DUR ‘something is falling (toward me)’ (370) b. thal - i te - cewte - khiʔ what - NOM DIR - fall - STAT ‘something fell down (toward me)’ (370) (38) a.