A Quick Guide to Welding and Weld Inspection by S E Hughes

By S E Hughes

A concise and available advisor to the data required to fulfil the function of a welding inspector. In protecting either ecu and US-based codes, the publication offers these wishing to achieve certification in welding inspection a simple all-round knowing of the most topic matter.

  • A concise and obtainable advisor to the information required to fulfil the position of a welding inspector
  • Covers either eu and US-based codes
  • Gives these wishing to achieve certification in welding inspection a simple all-round knowing of the most topic matter

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83% carbon content. Alloy steels contain alloying elements such as Mn, Mo, Cr and Ni and are divided into two groups: . Low alloy steels contain < 7% total of other alloying elements. High alloy steels contain > 7% total of other alloying elements. 2 Carbon diagram Alloying elements The following are some basic properties of alloying elements added to steels: Iron (Fe) Carbon (C) Manganese (Mn) Chromium (Cr) Molybdenum (Mo) Nickel (Ni) This is the basic constituent of steels. Increases tensile strength and hardness but reduces ductility.

This ability to be welded successfully depends on many factors including the type and composition of the material, the welding process used and the mechanical properties required. Poor weldability generally involves some type of cracking problem and this is dependent upon factors such as: . residual stress level (from unequal expansion and contraction due to welding); . restraint stress level (from local restraint such as clamps, jigs or fixtures); . presence of a microstructure susceptible to cracking (the base material may have a susceptible microstructure or the HAZ and/or weld metal may form a microstructure susceptible to cracking owing to the welding).

5% Ti). May be strengthened by small additions of O2, N2, C and Fe and is easily welded. Alpha alloys. Mainly single-phase alloys with up to 7% Al and a small amount of O2, N2 and C. These can be fusion welded in the annealed condition. Alpha-beta alloys. Two-phase alloys formed by the addition of up to 6% Al and varying amounts of betaforming constituents such as V, Cr and Mo. Can be fusion welded in the annealed condition. Ni–Ti alloys that contain a large beta phase, stabilised by elements such as Cr, are not easily welded.

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