By Carl D. Regillo MD
Reports the fundamental anatomy of the retina and diagnostic methods to retinal sickness. contains wide examinations of problems of the retina and vitreous, together with disorder, irritation, hereditary dystrophies, abnormalities and trauma. Discusses laser remedy and vitreoretinal surgical procedure. final significant revision 2008-2009.
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Additional info for 2011-2012 Basic and Clinical Science Course, Section 12: Retina and Vitreous (Basic & Clinical Science Course)
The RPE cells generate a voltage from apex to base because of the different ionic permeability characteristics on each surface and the presence of impermeable tight junct ions between the cells. Changes in the voltage acros s the apical or basal RPE membrane are reflected in the standing potential and are measurable clinically as th e c-wave on ERG or with EOG . M = Muller ce ll s. (Reprinted with permission from Steinberg RH. Monitoring communications between phororeceptors and pigment epithelial cells: effects of "mild ' svstemlc hYPoxia.
T 20~ nV A 80 ms 0 T 200, nV B o 80 ms Figure 3·4 Multifocal ERG tracings of the right eye of a pati ent with unexplained decreased visual acuity. The centra l macular region has marked decreased waveform amplitudes (A) compared to the reference trace s (8). J CHAPTER 3, Retinal Physiology an d Psychophysics. 39 Bright-flash ERG The ability to perform vitrectomies and repair retinal trauma has led to an active interest in judging retinal function in eyes with opaque media. The bright-flash ERG is performed with a flash stimulus that is brighter than usual, such as a high-intensity photographic strobe.
Hee MR, Puliafito CA, Wong C, et al. Optical coherence tomography of macular holes. Ophthalmology. 1995;102,748 - 756. Hee MR, Puliafito CA, Wong C, et al. Quantitative assessment of macular edema with optical coherence tomography. Arch Ophthalmol. 1995;113:1019-1029. Huang D, Swanson EA, Lin CP, et al. Optical coherence tomography. Science. 1991 ;254: ll78- 1181. Sca nnin g l aser Ophthalmoscopy A confocal SLO uses a near-infrared diode laser (675 nm ) beam that rapidly scans the posterior pole in a raster fashion- similar to the way in \vhich a television creates an image on a monitor.